Каушанская В.Л. - A Grammar of the English Language / Грамматика английского языка

Каушанская В.Л. - A Grammar of the English Language / Грамматика английского языка

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A Grammar of the English Language / Грамматика английского языка

Год выпуска: 2008

Автор: Каушанская В.Л.

Жанр: Учебник

Издательство: Айрис-пресс

Язык курса: Английский, Русский

Серия: Высшее образование

ISBN: 978-5-8112-3445-5

Формат: DOCX

Качество: ebook

Количество страниц: 298

Описание: Один из лучших отечественных учебников по грамматике английского языка, написанных за последние 50 лет. Книга состоит из двух частей — «Морфология» и «Синтаксис», в ней глубоко и детально описана грамматическая система английского языка. Примеры, иллюстрирующие правила, взяты из классических произведений английских и американских авторов XIX—XX вв., а также из современных словарей.

Пятое издание учебника составлено с учетом изменений, произошедших в грамматической системе английского языка за последние десятилетия.

Для студентов и преподавателей языковых вузов, а также для всех тех, кто желает в совершенстве освоить грамматику английского языка.Table of ContentsForeword 14

Introduction. Grammatical structure of the English language 15

Part 1

ACCIDENCE

General classification of the parts of speech 18

Chapter I. The Noun

§1. Definition 19

§ 2. Morphological characteristics 19

§ 3. Syntactical characteristics 19

§ 4. Morphological composition 20

§5. Classification 21

§ 6. The category of number 24

§7. The category of case 28

Chapter II. The Article

§1. General notion 32

Use of articles with common nouns 33

§ 2-4. Class nouns 33

§ 5-7. Nouns of material 38

§ 8-11. Abstract nouns 39

Use of articles with proper nouns 40

§ 12. Names of people 40

§ 13. Geographical names 42

§ 14. Names of hotels, ships, newspapers and magazines 43

§ 15. Names of cardinal points 43

§ 16. Names of months and days 43

§ 17. Nouns modified by proper nouns 44

Use of articles with nouns in some set expressions 44

§ 18. The use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions 44

§ 19. The use of the definite article with nouns in set expressions 45

§ 20. Nouns in set expressions used without an article 46

Use of articles in some syntactic relations 48

§ 21. The use of articles with predicative nouns 48

§ 22. The use of articles with nouns in apposition 49

§ 23. The use of articles with nouns used in address 50

§ 24. Place of the article 50

§ 25. Ways of expressing the meaning of the English articles in Russian 51

Special difficulties in the use of articles 52

§ 26. The use of articles with the nouns day, night, morning, evening 52

§ 27. The use of articles with names of seasons 52

§ 28. The use of articles with the nouns school, college, university, bed,

prison Jail, church 53

§ 29. The use of articles with the noun town 54

§ 30. The use of articles with the names of meals 54

§ 31. The use of articles with names of languages 55

Use of articles with nouns modified

by certain adjectives, pronouns and numerals 55

§ 32. Most 55

§ 33. Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little 56

§ 34. Two, the two; three, the three, etc 57

§ 35. The second, a second 57

§ 36. Another, the other 57

§ 37. Last, the last 58

§ 38. Next, the next 58

§ 39. A number, the number 58

Omission of the article 58

Chapter III. The Adjective

§ 1. Definition 60

§ 2. Morphological characteristics 60

§ 3. Spelling rules 61

§ 4. Syntactical characteristics 61

§ 5. Morphological composition 61

§ 6. Classification of adjectives 62

§ 7. Grammatical characteristics of qualitative adjectives 63

§ 8. Grammatical characteristics of relative adjectives 63

§ 9. Substantivized adjectives 64

Chapter IV. The Pronoun

§1. Definition 65

§ 2. Classification of pronouns 65

§ 3. Personal pronouns 66

§ 4. Possessive pronouns 67

§ 5. Reflexive pronouns 68

§6. Reciprocal pronouns 70

§ 7. Demonstrative pronouns 71

§8. Interrogative pronouns 72

§ 9. Relative pronouns 74

§ 10. Conjunctive pronouns 75

§11. Defining pronouns 76

§ 12. Indefinite pronouns 79

§ 13. Negative pronouns 83

Chapter V. The Numeral

§1. Definition 86

§ 2. Cardinal numerals 86

§ 3. The functions of cardinal numerals in a sentence 86

§ 4. Ordinal numerals 87

§ 5. The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence 87

Chapter VI. The Words of the Category of State

§1. Definition 89

§ 2—4. Morphological composition and use 89

Chapter VII. The Verb

§1. Definition 91

§ 2. Morphological structure 91

§3. Basic forms 91

§ 4. Syntactic function 94

§ 5. Transitive and intransitive verbs 95

§ 6. Lexical characteristics 96

§7—10. Grammatical categories 97

Tenses in the Active Voice

The Indefinite form 99

The Present Indefinite 99

§ 1. The formation of the Present Indefinite 99

§ 2. The use of the Present Indefinite 100

The Past Indefinite 102

§ 3. The formation of the Past Indefinite 102

§ 4. The use of the Past Indefinite 102

The Future Indefinite 104

§ 5. The formation of the Future Indefinite 104

§ 6. The use of the Future Indefinite 105

The Future Indefinite in the Past 105

§ 7. The formation of the Future Indefinite in the Past 105

§ 8. The use of the Future Indefinite in the Past 106

The Continuous form 106

The Present Continuous 107

§ 9. The formation of the Present Continuous 107

§ 10. The use of the Present Continuous 107

The Past Continuous 109

§ 11. The formation of the Past Continuous 109

§ 12. The use of the Past Continuous 110

The Future Continuous 111

§ 13. The formation of the Future Continuous 111

§ 14. The use of the Future Continuous 112

The Future Continuous in the Past 113

§ 15. The formation of the Future Continuous in the Past 113

§ 16. The use of the Future Continuous in the Past 114

Verbs not used in the Continuous Form 115

The Perfect form 116

The Present Perfect 116

§ 17. The formation of the Present Perfect 116

§ 18. The use of the Present Perfect 117

§ 19. The Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect 120

The Past Perfect 121

§ 20. The formation of the Past Perfect 121

§ 21. The use of the Past Perfect 122

§ 22. The Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect 124

The Future Perfect 124

§ 23. The formation of the Future Perfect 124

§ 24. The use of the Future Perfect 125

The Future Perfect in the Past 126

§ 25. The formation of the Future Perfect in the Past 126

§ 26. The use of the Future Perfect in the Past 127

The Perfect Continuous form 127

The Present Perfect Continuous 127

§ 27. The formation of the Present Perfect Continuous 127

§ 28. The use of the Present Perfect Continuous 128

§ 29. The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Present

Continuous 130

§ 30. The Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous

Exclusive 130

The Past Perfect Continuous 131

§31. The formation of the Past Perfect Continuous 131

§ 32. The use of the Past Perfect Continuous 132

§ 33. The Past Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Past Continuous 133

The Future Perfect Continuous 133

§ 34. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous 133

§ 35. The use of the Future Perfect Continuous 134

The Future Perfect Continuous in the Past 135

§ 36. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past 135

§ 37. The use of the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past 136

The Passive Voice

§ 1. The formation of the Passive Voice 137

§ 2. The use of the Passive Voice 138

§ 3. The use of tenses in the Passive Voice 139

§ 4. Ways of translating the Passive Voice into Russian 140

§ 5. Uses of the Passive Voice peculiar to the English language 140

§6. The verb to be + Participle II 143

Modal Verbs

§ 1. Definition 145

§ 2. Can 146

§ 3. May 149

§ 4. Must 152

§ 5. Should and ought 154

§ 6. To be + Infinitive 156

§ 7. To have + Infinitive 158

§ 8. Shall 160

§ 9. Will 161

§ 10. Would 163

§ 11 .Dare 164

§ 12. Need 164

Mood 165

The Indicative Mood 166

The Imperative Mood 166

The Subjunctive Mood 167

§1. General notion 167

§2. Synthetic forms 167

§3. Analytical forms 170

§ 4. The forms of the Indicative Mood used to express the same

meaning as is expressed by the Subjunctive Mood 170

The use of the Subjunctive Mood 171

§ 5. Simple sentences 171

§ 6. Conditional sentences 172

§ 7. Adverbial clauses of purpose 177

§ 8. Adverbial clauses of concession 178

§ 9. Adverbial clauses of time and place 179

§ 10. Adverbial clauses of comparison 179

§11. Predicative clause 180

§ 12. Subject clauses 181

§ 13. Object clauses 182

§ 14. Attributive appositive clauses 184

§ 15. Attributive clauses modifying the noun time in the principal

clause 184

§ 16. Emotional use of the Subjunctive Mood 185

§ 17. Ways of rendering the Subjunctive Mood in Russian 186

Chapter VIII. The Non-finite Forms of the Verb (the Verbals)

§1. Definition 187

§ 2. The characteristic traits of the verbals 187

The Participle

§ 3. General notion 189

§ 4. Double nature of the participle 190

§ 5. Tense distinctions 191

§ 6. Voice distinctions 192

§ 7. Functions of Participle 1 193

§ 8. Functions of Participle II 198

§ 9. Predicative constructions with the participle 200

§ 10. The Objective Participial Construction 200

§ 11. The Subjective Participial Construction 202

§ 12. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction 203

§ 13. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction 204

§ 14. Absolute constructions without a participle 204

§ 15. Punctuation 205

The Gerund

§ 16. General notion 206

§ 17. Double nature of the gerund 206

§ 18. Tense distinctions of the gerund 208

§ 19. Voice distinctions of the gerund 210

§ 20. Predicative constructions with the gerund 210

§21. The use of the gerund 212

§ 22. The gerund and the infinitive 215

§ 23. The functions of the gerund 217

§ 24. The gerund and the participle 222

§ 25. The gerund and the verbal noun 223

The Infinitive

§ 26. General notion 224

§ 27. Tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive 224

§ 28. Voice distinctions of the infinitive 226

§ 29. The use of the infinitive without the particle to 226

§ 30. The functions of the infinitive 229

§ 31. Infinitive constructions……………………………………………………...234

§ 32. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction 234

§ 33. The Subjective Infinitive Construction 239

§ 34. The for-to-Infinitive Construction 242

§ 35. The infinitive with the expressions to be sorry, to be glad 244

Chapter IX. The Adverb

§1. Definition 245

§ 2. Morphological structure 245

§ 3. Degrees of comparison 245

§ 4. Classification 246

Chapter X. The Modal Words

§1. Definition 247

§2. Classification 247

§3. Use 247

§ 4. Modal words and adverbs 247

Chapter XI. The Interjection

§1. Definition 249

§2. Classification 249

§ 3. Morphological composotion 249

Chapter XII. The Preposition

§1. Definition 251

§ 2. Morphological structure 251

§ 3. Classification 251

§ 4. Prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions 252

§ 5. Prepositions and postpositions 253

Chapter XIII. The Conjunction

§1. Definition 254

§ 2. Morphological structure 254

§3. Classification 255

§ 4. Coordinating conjunctions 255

§ 5. Subordinating conjunctions 258

Chapter XIV. The Particle

§1. Definition 261

§2. Classification 261

Part II SYNTAX

Chapter XV. The Simple Sentence

§1. Definition 264

§2. Classification 264

§3-4. Structure 267

Parts of the Sentence

The principal parts of the sentence 269

The Subject 269

§5. Definition 269

§ 6. Ways of expressing the subject 269

§ 7. It as the subject of the sentence 272

The predicate 274

§8. Definition 274

§ 9. The simple predicate 275

§ 10. The predicate expressed by a phraseological unit 275

§ 11. The compound predicate 277

§ 12. The compound nominal predicate 277

§ 13. The predicative 280

§ 14. The Objective Predicative 282

§ 15. The compound verbal predicate 283

§ 16. The compound verbal modal predicate 283

§ 17. The compound verbal aspect predicate 284

§ 18. Mixed types of predicate 285

Agreement of the predicate with the subject 286

§ 19. General notion 286

§ 20. Rules of agreement 287

§21. Agreemen of the predicate with the subject expressed by a syntactic

word-group 291

The secondary parts of the sentence 294

The object 294

§22. Definition 294

§ 23. Ways of expressing the object 294

§24. Kinds of objects 296

§25. The direct object 296

§ 26. The indirect object 296

§ 27. The complex object 299

§ 28. The cognate object 300

The attribute 301

§29. Definition 301

§ 30. Ways of expressing the attribute 301

§ 31. The apposition 305

§ 32. The close apposition 305

§ 33. The loose or detached apposition 306

The adverbial modifier 306

§ 34. Definition and classification 306

§ 35. Ways of expressing the adverbial modifier 308

Detached (loose) parts of the sentence 310

§36. Definition 310

§ 37. The detached adverbial modifier 311

§ 38. The detached attribute 312

§ 39. The detached object 312

The independent elements of the sentence 312

§40. Definition 312

§41. Parenthesis 313

Sentences with homogeneous parts 314

Chapter XVI. Word Order

§ 1. General remarks 316

§2-4. Inverted order of words 317

§ 5. Position of the object 322

§ 6. Position of the attribute 323

§ 7. Position of adverbial modifiers 327

Chapter XVII. The Compound Sentence

and the Complex Sentence

The compound sentence 332

§ 1. General notion 332

§ 2. Types of coordination 332

The complex sentence 334

§ 3. General notion 334

§ 4. Subject clauses 336

§5. Predicative clauses 337

§ 6. Object clauses 338

§ 7. Attributive clauses 340

§ 8. Attributive relative clauses 340

§ 9. Attributive appositive clauses 342

§ 10. The use of relative pronouns in attributive relative clauses 342

§ 11. Adverbial clauses 344

§ 12. Adverbial clauses of time 345

§ 13. Adverbial clauses of place 346

§ 14. Adverbial clauses of cause 347

§ 15. Adverbial clauses of purpose 347

§ 16. Adverbial clauses of condition 348

§ 17. Adverbial clauses of concession 348

§ 18. Adverbial clauses of result 349

§ 19. Adverbial clauses of manner 349

§ 20. Adverbial clauses of comparison 350

§ 21. Polysemantic conjunctions 350

The compound-complex sentence 351

Parenthetical clauses 351

Chapter XVIII. The Sequence of Tenses

§1. Definition 352

§2-5. General rules 353

§ 6. Tenses in English and in Russian 354

§ 7. Tenses in object clauses 355

§ 8. Tenses in conventional direct speech 355

§ 9. Tenses in attributive relative clauses and adverbial clauses of cause,

result, comparison, and concession 355

§ 10. Tenses in subject clauses and predicative clauses 356

Chapter XIX. Indirect Speech

§ 1-2. General remarks 357

§3. Indirect statements 363

§ 4. Indirect questions 365

§ 5. Indirect orders and requests 366

§ 6. Indirect offers, suggestions, and advice 368

§ 7. Indirect exclamations 369

§ 8. Greetings and leave-taking 369

Chapter XX. Punctuation

§ 1. General remarks 371

The simple sentence 371

§2. Homogeneous members 371

§ 3. Detached members 372

§ 4. Parenthetical words, groups of words, and clauses 373

§ 5. Inteijections 374

§ 6. Nouns in address 374

The compound sentence 374

§ 7. Coordinate clauscs joined asyndetically 374

§ 8. Coordinate clauses joined by copulative conjunctions 375

§ 9. Coordinate clauses joined by disjunctive conjunctions 375

§ 10. Coordinate clauses joined by adversative conjunctions 376

§11. Clauses joined by causative-consecutive conjunctions and

conjunctive adverbs 376

§ 12. Sentence containing direct speech 377

The complex sentence 378

§ 13. Subject clauses 378

§ 14. Predicative clauses . 378

§ 15. Object clauses 378

§ 16. Attributive clauses 379

§ 17. Adverbial clauses 379

§ 18. Complex sentences consisting of two or more homogeneous

clauses 380

§ 19. Declarative non-exclamatory sentences 380

§ 20. Sentences expressing a question 380

§21. Exclamatory sentences 381

§ 22. Unfinished sentences 381 Все книги Каушанской В.Л.на трекере

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